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  1. Software engineering is a systematic, standardized, and quantifiable application of software development, operation and maintenance, that is, the application of software engineering and research on these methods.
  2. The essential reason for the software crisis is that the management complexity of large software projects is more than the degree of direct control of human brain energy. Its main manifestations are: the project operation exceeds budgets, project operations exceeding time, low software quality, software usually does not match the demand, the project cannot be managed, and the code is difficult to maintain. In order to overcome the software crisis, software engineering came into being.
  3. System development life cycle consists of a series of clearly defined different working stages, which helps system engineers and system developers to use the design, construction, testing and delivery of the system. The publishing system passes through each working stage, including time and time limit and cost estimate. Many SDLC models or methods are created, such as “waterfall model”, “spiral model”, “agile software development”, “fast prototype model”, “incremental model”; and “synchronization and stability”.
  4. ① Software requirements
    Software demand represents the demand and restraint of software products.

② software design

Software design must describe the software architecture-that is, how the software is decomposed and organized into a component, and the interface between these components must also describe the component at the detail level to achieve its structure
③ Software building

Software Construction refers to creating work software in detail through a combination of detailed design, coding, unit testing, integration testing, debugging and verification.

④ Software test


test is an activity that evaluates the quality of the product and improves product quality by identifying defects. Software testing involves dynamic verification of program behaviors based on the expected behavior on the limited test case.

⑤ Software maintenance

Software maintenance includes augmented existing capabilities, enabling software to adapt to new and modified operating environments, and correct defects.

⑥ Software configuration management

Software Configuration Management (SCM) is a discipline that identifies the system configuration at different time points. The purpose is to systematically control the configuration changes and maintain the integrity and traceability of the configuration during the entire software life cycle

⑦ Software Engineering Management

Software engineering management includes plans, coordination, measurement, reporting and controlling projects or procedures to ensure that the development and maintenance of software is systematic, disciplined and quantitative.

工 Software Project process

Software engineering involves the definition, implementation, evaluation, measurement, management, and improvement of the software life cycle process.

⑨ Software engineering model and method

Software engineering model and method KA describes the method that contains multiple life cycle stages; methods specific in the specific life cycle stage are covered by other KA.

⑩ Software Quality

Software Quality KA includes software quality foundation (software engineering culture, software quality characteristics, software quality value and cost, and software quality improvement); software quality management process (software quality assurance, verification and confirmation, review and audit); and practical practicality sex.

⑪ Software Engineering Professional Practice

Software engineering professional practice involves the knowledge, skills and attitudes that software engineers must have the knowledge, skills and attitudes that software engineering must have in a professional, responsible and moral manner.

⑫ Software Engineering Economics

Software Engineering Economics KA pays attention to making decisions in the business environment so that technical decisions and organization’s business goals are consistent.

⑬ Calculation foundation

KA calculation foundation covers the basic theme of providing the necessary calculation background for software engineering practice. The themes covered include problem solving technology, abstraction, algorithm and complexity, programming foundation, parallel and distributed computing foundation, computer organization, operating system and network communication.

⑭ Mathematics basis

mathematical foundation KA covers the basic theme of providing the necessary mathematical background for software engineering practice. The subjects involved include collection, relationships, and functions; basic propositions and predicate logic; proof technology; diagram and tree; discrete probability; grammar and limited state machines; and digital theory.

⑮ Engineering basics

Project foundation KA covers the basic theme of providing the necessary engineering background for software engineering practice. The themes covered include experience methods and experimental technologies; statistical analysis; measurement and measurement; engineering design; simulation and modeling; and fundamental analysis.


maturity level 1-spontaneous production mode

mature level 2 -Management

  • CM -Configuration Management (Configuration Management)
  • MA -Merture and Analysis (Measurement and Analysis)
  • PMC -Project Monitoring and Control
  • PP -Project Planning
  • PPQA -Process and production quality assurance
  • REQM -Requirements Management
  • SAM -Supplier Agreement Management (SUPPLIER AGREEMENT Management)

maturity level 3 -defined

  • DAR -Decision Analysis and Resolution
  • ipm -Integrated project management
  • OPD -Organizational Process Definition
  • OPF -Organizational Process Focus
  • OT -OrganizationAl Training
  • PI -Product Integration (Product Integration)
  • RD -Requirements Development
  • RSKM -Risk Management (Risk Management)
  • TS -Technical solution
  • VAL -Validation (Validation)
  • VER -Verification (Verification)

mature level 4 -Management of quantitatively

  • OPP -Organizational Process Performance
  • QPM -Quantitative Project Management

maturity level 5 -Optimization

  • CAR -Causal Analysis and Resolution
  • OPM -Organizational Performance Management


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